The patterns of intracranial failure in patients with brain metastasis from pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinoma (PNEC) remain unknown.Methods:
From 1998 to 2013, 29 patients with the diagnosis of PNEC were treated for brain metastasis: 16 patients (55%) underwent whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT), 5 (17%) patients underwent WBRT with a stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) boost, and 8 (28%) patients underwent primary SRS alone.Results:
The median age at treatment was 61 years (range: 44-84 years) and the median follow-up was 9.6 months (0-157.4 months). Of the patients treated with SRS alone, 1 patient had radiographic local progression of disease and 1 patient had a distant intracranial failure. Of the patients treated with WBRT with or without an SRS boost, 9 patients developed intracranial progression, including 1 local failure. No differences in rates of intracranial progression or local failure between the 2 groups (P = .94 and P = .44, respectively) were observed. The actuarial rates of distant intracranial failure at 12 months were 32.9% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 8.9%-56.8%) and 25% (95% CI 0.0%-67.4%) in patients undergoing primary WBRT or SRS, respectively (P = .31). The median overall survival was 15.8 months in patients treated with WBRT and 20.4 months in patients treated with primary SRS (P = .78).Conclusion:
Patients with brain metastasis from PNECs can be effectively treated with either WBRT or SRS alone, with a pattern of failure more consistent with non-small cell lung cancer than small cell lung cancer. In this series, there was not a statistically significant increased risk of distant intracranial failure when patients were treated with primary SRS.