This study investigated the biological effects of microRNA-126 overexpression in human MG63 osteosarcoma cells. A recombinant plasmid expressing microRNA-126, pcDNA6.2-microRNA-126, was constructed and transfected into MG63 cells. Using real-time fluorogenic quantitative polymerase chain reaction, the microRNA-126 expression was measured in microRNA-126-MG63 group, Ctrl-MG63 group, and blank group. Cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, cell migration, and invasion were analyzed using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay, flow cytometer, wound-healing assay, and transwell assay, respectively. As expected, microRNA-126 expression was higher in microRNA-126-MG63 group than in Ctrl-MG63 group and blank group (both P < .05). After 48/72 hours of transfection, cell proliferation in microRNA-126-MG63 group was significantly reduced compared to blank group (both P < .05). Compared to blank group, cell population in G0/G1 stage was significantly higher in microRNA-126-MG63 group, accompanied by lower cell numbers in the S and G2/M phases and decreased proliferation index (all P < .05). Wound-healing assay showed a wider scratch width in microRNA-126-MG63 group and reduced cell migration than blank group (both P < .05). Cells overexpressing microRNA-126 exhibited reduced ADAM9 expression levels compared to other 2 groups (all P < .05), suggesting ADAM9 is a target of microRNA-126. Cell proliferation, migration, and invasion rates were reduced in microRNA-126 group after 48/72 hours of transfection, compared with blank group (all P < .05). Cotransfection of pcDNA6.2-microRNA-126 and pMIR-ADAM9 into MG63 cells led to higher cell proliferation, invasion, and migration rates, compared with transfection of pcDNA6.2-microRNA-126 alone (all P < .05). In summary, our data show that microRNA-126 inhibits cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in human osteosarcoma cells by targeting ADAM9.