1Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China2Department of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China3Department of Liver, Gall, Pancreas Surgery, The 1st Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China4Department of Colorectal Cancer Surgery, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China5Department of Colorectal Surgery, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China
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Background:Hilar cholangiocarcinomas are malignant tumors with a poor prognosis. An early prediction of prognosis for patients may help us determine treatment strategies. Aquaporin 1 is a cell membrane channel involved in water transport, cell motility, and proliferation. Increasing evidences showed that aquaporin 1 played a role in tumor prognosis and diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of aquaporin 1 in hilar cholangiocarcinoma.Methods:Here, we analyzed messenger RNA expression data of genes function as bile secretion in a data set of 169 samples using the R2 bioinformatic platform (http://r2.amc.nl). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to verify the gene expression in 17 hilar cholangiocarcinoma samples. Immunohistochemistry was also performed in a series of specimens from 62 hilar cholangiocarcinoma tissues, and its clinical significance was assessed by clinical correlation and Kaplan-Meier analyses.Results:All data were analyzed using the R2 web application, aquaporin 1 was selected for further analysis. The significant expression variation of aquaporin 1 among 17 cases with cholangiocarcinoma was also found using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The expression level of aquaporin 1 protein significantly correlated with tumor-node-metastasis stage (P = .002) and overall survival time (P = .010). Higher aquaporin 1 expression indicated poor prognostic outcomes (P <.05, log-rank test). Multivariate analysis also showed strong aquaporin 1 protein expression was an independent adverse prognosticator in hilar cholangiocarcinoma (P = .002).Conclusion:This study highlighted the prognostic value of aquaporin 1 in hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Strong aquaporin 1 expression predicts poor survival, regardless of pathological features. Immunohistochemical detection of aquaporin 1, as a prognostic marker, may contribute to predicting clinical outcome for patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma.