A Simple Method for 2-D In Vivo Dosimetry by Portal Imaging

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Abstract

Purpose:

To improve patient safety and treatment quality, verification of dose delivery in radiotherapy is desirable. We present a simple, easy-to-implement, open-source method for in vivo planar dosimetry of conformal radiotherapy by electronic portal imaging device (EPID).

Methods:

Correlation ratios, which relate dose in the mid-depth of slab phantoms to transit EPID signal, were determined for multiple phantom thicknesses and field sizes. Off-axis dose is corrected for by means of model-based convolution. We tested efficacy of dose reconstruction through measurements with off-reference values of attenuator thickness, field size, and monitor units. We quantified the dose calculation error in the presence of thickness changes to simulate anatomical or setup variations. An example of dose calculation on patient data is provided.

Results:

With varying phantom thickness, field size, and monitor units, dose reconstruction was almost always within 3% of planned dose. In the presence of thickness changes from planning CT, the dose discrepancy is exaggerated by up to approximately 1.5% for 1 cm changes upstream of the isocenter plane and 4% for 1 cm changes downstream.

Conclusion:

Our novel electronic portal imaging device in vivo dosimetry allows clinically accurate 2-dimensional reconstruction of dose inside a phantom/patient at isocenter depth. Due to its simplicity, commissioning can be performed in a few hours per energy and may be modified to the user’s needs. It may provide useful dose delivery information to detect harmful errors, guide adaptive radiotherapy, and assure quality of treatment.

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