Trends in Bacterial Wound Isolates and Antimicrobial Susceptibility in a Pediatric Burn Hospital

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The purpose of this retrospective study was to collate data dealing with organisms cultured from the burn patients and evaluate trends in antimicrobial susceptibility. All cultures collected from each acute admission patient between 2004 and 2011 in the 30-bed pediatric burn hospital were evaluated for their annual frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility. Duplicate cultures were excluded. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated most frequently (25% of total isolates; range, 69–408 isolates/yr), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13%; range, 40–202 isolates/yr), coagulase-negative staphylococci (9%; range, 2–188 isolates/yr), Enterobacter cloacae (8%; range, 22–128 isolates/yr), and Escherichia coli (6%; range, 19–91 isolates/yr). This rank order remained relatively consistent during the period of study. The emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus increased from 20% in 2004 to about 45% in 2009 to 2011. Susceptibility to vancomycin was still 100%. In comparing periods 2004 to 2007 and 2008 to 2011, P. aeruginosa showed increased susceptibility to cefepime (from 76% to 84%) and the aminoglycosides (from 68% to 81%), whereas susceptibility to piperacillin-tazobactam remained high (from 91% to 93%). E. cloacae demonstrated 90 to 100% susceptibility to aminoglycosides, cefepime, and imipenem. E. coli showed an increased rate of resistance to ceftazidime but was still susceptible to imipenem and amikacin. S. aureus and P. aeruginosa continue to be the most prevalent organisms cultured from our pediatric burn population. Almost half of the staphylococcal isolates were methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Despite widespread use of piperacillin-tazobactam, P. aeruginosa susceptibility remained high. Several classes of antimicrobials continued to demonstrate good to excellent activity against the majority of organisms cultured from the burn patients.

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