Modeling the Triple Helix from a Small Country Perspective: The Case of Finland
In recent discussions on the science and technology system particularly two perspectives have been visible, one emphasizing the transitory changes in the modes of knowledge production, the other focusing on the institutional integration of the S&T system (Triple Helix). The article analyzes the development of the Finnish S&T system and policy as a national case from the point of view of the Triple Helix thesis. It concludes that both perspectives—systemic transition and integration—are essential for understanding recent changes in S&T, but do not yet cover the whole range of relevant issues. In addition, one should take into account the spatial, or international, dimension of S&T, which is crucial especially when viewed from a small country perspective. Furthermore, it is important to consider the cognitive dimension of S&T, as the socio-cognitive diversity of research fields affects their specific role in the transformation processes.