The Triple Helix Enriched with the User Perspective: A View from Bangladesh

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University-industry-government interactions are seen as crucial for the innovative capacity of a country. In this paper, we argue that this triple helix model neglects other important actors, such as the intended users of innovations. We show on the basis of empirical finding that the use of the triple helix model as a prescriptive model has drawbacks. Depending on the context of innovations, the neglect of users in the innovation process may lead to technical results which are hardly used. Moreover, the lack of input from users may lead to missed opportunities. This paper shows the achievements of an innovation strategy that includes the user perspectives in the triple helix—here illustrated by a case study in Bangladesh. The paper ends with a theoretical embedding of the user perspective in studies of the innovation process.

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