Effect of doxazocin on experimentally induced prostatic hyperplasia in adult male albino rats: a histological and immunohistochemical study

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Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate that results in obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms. Doxazocin (DOX) is known to relax prostate smooth muscle through blockage of α-adrenergic receptors. This action alone does not account for the clinical responses by this drug.

Aim of work

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of DOX treatment on a testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia model in rats.

Materials and methods

A total of 36 adult male albino rats were used in this study. They were divided into the following groups: a control group (group I), in which the rats received the vehicle orally; an experimental group (group II), in which rats received testosterone propionate 7.5 mg/kg/day intramuscularly for 10 days; and subgroup IIa, which received only testosterone,, and subgroups IIb, IIc, which received DOX 25 mg/kg/day orally for 7 and 30 days, respectively. Prostatic glands were excised and processed for light microscopic study using H&E stain, Masson’s trichrome stains, and immunohistochemical staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA). The mean area % of collagen and of PCNA and αSMA immunoreactivity was measured using an image analyzer and the results were statistically analyzed.


Testosterone treatment resulted in epithelial and stromal hyperplasia of the prostate. The lumina of acini were distended with secretion and separated with thick fibromuscular stroma. DOX-treated groups showed reduced epithelial and smooth muscle hyperplasia. The acini contained less secretion and were separated by thick fibromuscular stroma with fewer smooth muscle fibers. Morphometric study showed that the mean area % of PCNA and (αSMA) immunoreactivity was significantly reduced; however, the mean area % of collagen was significantly increased in the DOX-treated groups.


It was concluded that DOX treatment inhibits prostatic hyperplasia by reducing epithelial cell proliferation and smooth muscle hyperplasia. Thus, DOX is an effective drug for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

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