Effect of alloxan-induced diabetes on implantation sites of pregnant rats with special emphasis on angiogenesis

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Diabetes is relatively common worldwide. According to the reports of the WHO, more than 150 million people suffer from diabetes across the world. A primary negative effect of a diabetic environment on the developing embryo is impaired vascularization of the yolk sac. Angiogenesis at the sites of blastocyst implantation is associated with increased vascular permeability.


The present study aimed to investigate the effect of diabetes on the implantation site and intersite in albino rats during the early period of pregnancy, with special emphasis on angiogenesis, by studying vascular endothelial growth factor expression.

Materials and method

Forty adult female albino rats aged 4–6 months were used in this study. Rats were divided into two groups (20 rats each). Group I constituted the control group and group II constituted the alloxan-induced diabetic group. Diabetes was induced in rats by intravenous injection of alloxan monohydrate dissolved in normal saline into the dorsal tail vein at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight. Vaginal smears were collected from each animal; the presence of sperm in the smear was designated as day 1 of pregnancy. Pregnant rats from the control and diabetic groups were sacrificed at days 4, 5, 6, and 7 of pregnancy (n=5). Examination of the uterine horn sections showed occurrence of implantation on day 6 in the control group, whereas implantation in the diabetic group occurred only on day 7. Granulated metrial glandular cells were clearly seen in the control group, whereas lymphocytic infiltration was obvious in the diabetic group. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor was stronger in the diabetic group.

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