Testicular toxic changes induced by bisphenol A in adult albino rats: a histological, biochemical, and immunohistochemical study

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Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor that is incorporated in many plastic industries worldwide. The exposure of humans to such substances starts from the fetal life to the postnatal life and extends throughout the life of the individual. Many agencies have raised warnings against the excessive use of such substances.

Aim of work

The present study was designed to evaluate the biochemical and histological changes induced by BPA in the testis of adult male albino rats and to detect the ability of self-regeneration after stoppage.

Materials and methods

Thirty-two adult male albino rats were used. The rats were divided equally into four groups (eight animals each). Groups I and II were used as negative and positive control groups, respectively. Rats of group III were given an oral dose of 50 mg/kg of BPA per day for 8 weeks. In group IV, the rats were treated in the same manner as in group III and then left without treatment for 4 weeks for recovery. At the time of sacrifice, all rats were anesthetized with ether, and blood samples were collected for estimation of testosterone. The testes were dissected out and processed for testicular malondialdehyde and glutathione measurement and light and electron microscopic examination. The diameter and epithelial height of the seminiferous tubules were estimated morphometrically and statistically analyzed.


Biochemical results of the BPA-treated group (group III) revealed testicular affection with oxidative stress. Testes of this group showed many distorted seminiferous tubules lined by disorganized epithelium and separated with wide interstitium containing congested blood vessels. Apoptotic nuclei of some spermatids and intercellular spaces were also seen. There was a decrease in estrogen receptors. Statistical analysis of epithelial height and tubular diameter confirmed the results. However, in the recovery group (group IV), the histological and the biochemical changes were reduced but did not return to normal.


These results demonstrated that BPA had deleterious effects on the testis with some sort of self-recovery after stoppage.

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