In-vitro: a histological study differentiation of adult human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into bone-forming cells: a histological study

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Bone tissue constitutes one of the most important units of the locomotive system. However, its regenerative capacity remains limited and bone diseases are still major socioeconomic issues. Stem cells have been the subject of much research over the recent years and comprise a promising tool for cellular therapy. Osteoblastic differentiation from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) shows the best regenerative potential; thus, they are an ideal candidate as a source for osteogenic cells.


The aim of this study was to evaluate hBM-MSCs histologically to highlight the morphological changes occurring during their osteogenic differentiation.

Materials and methods

Cells from passage 9 were seeded in complete culture medium. When cells became confluent the osteogenic medium was applied. Osteogenic differentiation was detected histologically on days 7, 14, and 21 using light and electron microscopes.


Cells in osteogenic medium became cuboidal in shape with extracellular deposits, which stain positively red with Alizarin red stain. Ultrastructurally, they revealed the picture of active secreting cells. Their cytoplasm showed euchromatic nucleus, multiple mitochondria, profiles of rough endoplasmic reticulum, well-developed Golgi complex, and lysosomes.


The hBM-MSCs represented a source of osteogenic differentiating cells. Moreover, passage 9 secured cells for further studies while maintaining their osteoblastic differentiation. In addition, the study shed light on the ultrastructure of these cells during differentiation, which revealed the characteristics of active secreting cells.

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