Therapeutic potential of omega-3 against sodium fluoride toxicity on the cerebellar cortex of adult male albino rats: histological and immunohistochemical study

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Abstract

Background

Sodium fluoride is commonly added to drinking water and tooth pastes, and it leads to neurotoxicity. Omega-3 shows neuroprotective properties for a variety of neurodegenerative and neurological disorders.

Aim

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of omega-3 on sodium fluoride toxicity in rat cerebellar cortex.

Materials and methods

Forty adult male albino rats were divided randomly into four groups of 10 rats each: the control group, which received 0.5 ml distilled water daily; the sodium fluoride group, which received sodium fluoride 10 mg/kg/body weight daily dissolved in distilled water; the omega-3 group, which received omega-3 0.5 ml/kg/body weight daily; and the sodium fluoride and omega-3 group, which received sodium fluoride and omega-3 as in the previous groups. All treatments were administered daily for 14 days by an intragastric tube. The rats were killed 24 h after the last dose. The cerebellum was extracted for H&E, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic studies. A morphometric study was carried out and the results were statistically analyzed.

Results

In the present study, the fluoride group showed degenerated and areas of complete loss of Purkinje cells with cytoplasmic vacuolations, destructed mitochondria, ruptured blood capillaries in the cerebellar cortex, and disrupted nerve fibers and their myelin sheath. The area percentage of the glial fibrillary acidic protein-stained cells in the fluoride group was statistically significant increase compared with the other groups studied. The fluoride and omega-3 group showed normal granular cells, Purkinje cells, and molecular layers that contained neuroglia cells with myelinated nerve fibers.

Conclusion

Omega-3 can ameliorate the toxic changes of sodium fluoride on rat cerebellar cortex.

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