Effect of gum arabic on the stomach of uraemic rat: a histological and immunohistochemical evaluation

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Abstract

Background

Gastrointestinal dysfunction is inevitable with chronic renal failure (CRF). Gum arabic (GA) has previously been shown to ameliorate the severity of CRF in humans and rodents. However, to our knowledge, unbiased quantitative studies on the effect of GA on the stomach in experimentally induced CRF have not been carried out.

Aim

This study was designed to investigate the gastroprotective effects of GA against gastric injury in uraemic rats.

Material and methods

A total of 60 adult male albino rats were randomly divided into control, sham control, GA, uraemic and protected groups. After 5 weeks, blood and stomach samples were collected from the rats and the following studies were carried out to assess tissue injury: histological studies (light, scanning and transmission microscopy), immunohistochemical studies to detect the expression of caspase-3 and smoothelin-A, and biochemical studies to measure serum concentrations of creatinine and urea and detect the presence of biomarkers such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α.

Results

Compared with the uraemic group of rats, the microscopic images of the stomachs of GA-protected rats yielded a significantly ameliorated appearance, and showed downregulated expression of oxidative, inflammatory and apoptotic markers.

Conclusion

Uraemia is confirmed to induce gastroparesis and cause inflammation and oxidation- related tissue injury as well as increase the risk for neoplasia. GA probably protects against gastroparesis-induced epithelial injury in uraemic rat stomachs through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic mechanisms.

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