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Evidence has consistently established that older people with a higher frequency of falls are more likely to be affected by environmental stimuli or simultaneous responsibilities while attempting to maintain balance. Physical therapists have the skill and technology to evaluate a patient's ability to combine tasks and to measure their tolerance of distractions. The science of dual-task testing, documentation, and rehabilitation has provided insight into who can be helped, how to help them, and how to aid in compensation when rehabilitation has not succeeded. This article reviews all of the aforementioned aspects of dual task for older patients, and some diagnostic groups, including some insight to the neurophysiology as well.