In the present study, we examined the effects of a new peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF) with a low level of low glucose degradation products (GDP) on the functional and structural stability of the peritoneal membrane (PM). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: group C (n = 8), without dialysate infusion; group P (n = 12), infused with low-level GDP solution (4.25% Physioneal, pH 7.0–7.4); and group D (n = 12), infused with conventional solution (4.25% Dianeal, pH 5.2, adjusted to pH 7.0). In groups D and P, animals were infused through a permanent catheter with 25 mL of PDF, twice daily for 8 weeks. Lipopolysaccharide was added into the PDF immediately before infusion on days 8, 9 and 10 in the two dialysis groups. When compared with group P, group D showed a higher glucose mass transfer at weeks 6 and 8, D/P urea at week 8, TGF-β1 at weeks 4 and 8, and VEGF level at week 8. The submesothelial matrix layer of the parietal peritoneum was significantly thickened in group D and the lectin-stained blood vessels in this layer were well-visualized in group D compared with group P. There were significantly more peritoneal blood vessels in group D than group P. The transforming growth factor-β induced gene-h3 (βig-h3) and TGF-β1 levels in the peritoneal effluent correlated with the submesothelial thickness, which correlated with the dialysate-to-plasma ratio (D/P) of protein and, inversely, with the rate of glucose transport (D/D0 glucose, where D is glucose concentration in the dialysate and D0 is glucose concentration in the dialysis solution before it is infused into the peritoneal cavity). The present study showed that low-GDP PDF effectively attenuated the peritoneal vascularization and fibrosis related to conventional solution.