The aim of this study was to identify the common health problems of Japanese patients on hemodialysis (HD) using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The participants of this study had been on HD for at least five years when they were interviewed. The ICF checklist was used to initially interview 32 HD patients. Fifty-seven categories of the ICF Checklist were identified as impaired; another 35 ICF categories, chosen based on interviews and expert discussion, as well as 8 categories relevant to HD, were included in the final checklist. This final checklist was then used to interview 104 patients. Overall, 10 categories in “Body functions” and 3 categories in “Body structures” were reported as problems by more than 50% of patients. Two categories in “Activities and participation” and 4 categories in “Environmental factors” were reported as restricted or a barrier for more than 30% of patients. A higher percentage of patients who started HD before 50 years of age and had a longer duration of HD reported problems in “Body functions” and “Body structures”, while more patients with a shorter duration of HD reported problems in relationships with their family. Japanese patients on maintenance HD have various physical and psychosocial problems. In addition, HD duration and the age when HD was started affect patients' reports of physical and psychosocial problems.