Residual renal function preservation in patients with renal failure has been shown to be related to better outcomes not only in the pre-dialysis phase but also after hemodialysis initiation. However, the effect of factors such as antihypertensive agents on residual renal function preservation has not been investigated adequately in prevalent hemodialysis patients. This study examined factors related to the rate of residual renal function preservation in 1-year hemodialysis patients who had residual renal function. We enrolled 191 consecutive maintenance hemodialysis patients who underwent hemodialysis for 1 year and maintained a urine output of more than 200 mL/day, to assess residual renal function loss. The rate of residual renal function loss was 19.9%. Multivariate analysis using residual renal function as the dependent variable revealed significant independent relationships with renin-angiotensin system inhibitor use (hazard ratio, 0.438; P = 0.027), history of cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio, 2.475; P = 0.024), and rate of weight gain between dialysis sessions (hazard ratio, 1.348; P = 0.013). No relationship was observed with calcium channel blocker use. Renin-angiotensin system inhibitor use, rate of body weight gain between dialysis sessions, and cardiovascular diseases are independently associated with residual renal function preservation in patients with residual renal function after 1 year of hemodialysis. A further intervention study is required to investigate whether treatment with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and suppression of body weight gain preserves residual renal function for a longer time in hemodialysis patients.