Autoantibodies to apolipoprotein/A-1 (anti-ApoA-1 IgG) have pro-atherogenic properties in patients at high cardiovascular risk, but its prevalence in patients with end-stage kidney disease is unknown. The aims of this single-center, cross-sectional study were to assess the prevalence of anti-ApoA-1 antibodies in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD), and to examine its correlation with inflammatory biomarkers related to atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability and dialysis vintage. To this purpose, anti-ApoA-1 IgG levels and the concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), tumor necrosis factor-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were assessed in the sera of 66 MHD patients (mean age: 68 ± 14 years, 36% women, 32% diabetics). Anti-ApoA-1 IgG positivity (defined as a blood value ≥ 97.5th percentile of the normal distribution as assessed in healthy blood donors) was 20%. Circulating levels of anti-ApoA-1 IgG correlated positively with dialysis vintage, but not with cardiovascular risk factors or previous cardiovascular events; no significant correlations were found between the anti-ApoA1 IgG levels and circulating levels of IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, MMP-9, CRP, or low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. In multivariable linear regression, adjusted for age and sex, only dialysis vintage remained positively and independently associated with anti-ApoA-1 titers (β = 0.05, 95% CI: 0.006; 0.28, P = 0.049). In conclusion, the prevalence of anti-ApoA-1 IgG is raised in the MHD-population, and positively associated with dialysis vintage, a major determinant of cardiovascular outcome. Whether antiApoA-1 antibodies play a role in the pathophysiology of accelerated atherosclerosis in the MHD-population merits further study.