The aim of the study was to assess the potential predictive factors for early arteriovenous fistula (AVF) failure following the fistula first initiative. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 159 end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients who underwent AVF creation. The preoperative factors such as demographic, comorbidity condition, laboratory parameters and medication, and intraoperative or surgical-related factors were assessed. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, significant predictive factors of early AVF failure were female gender (odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 2.63 (1.19–5.81); P = 0.017), higher body mass index (P = 0.038), and lower hemoglobin level (P = 0.048), while adjusting for preoperative factors or all factors. For adjusting of intraoperative factors, reduced venous diameter (P = 0.056) tended to be associated with early AVF failure. In conclusion, female gender, higher body mass index and lower hemoglobin level predicted the occurrence of early AVF failure in ESRD patients.