Vascular calcification is common in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients and can be measured using abdominal aortic calcification (AAC). Loss of residual renal function (RRF) is associated with increased mortality in HD patients. However, the association between loss of RRF and vascular calcification is unknown. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between loss of RRF and VC in HD patients. All chronic HD (HD for more than 3 months) patients of China Medical University Hospital in 2014 were included. AAC scores were measured semi-quantitatively based on later lumbar radiographs. Loss of RRF was defined as urine output less than 200 mL per day. The association between loss of RRF and AAC was analyzed using logistic regression. Four hundred and thirty-eight chronic HD patients with a mean age of 63 ± 12 years were analyzed. The median (interquartile range) AAC score of all patients was 7 (2–13). The AAC score of patients with loss of RRF was 9 (3–22), significantly higher than that of patients with RRF 5 (0–17) (P = 0.004). Loss of RRF, independent of patients' age, diabetes, C-reactive protein, calcium-phosphorus product and vintage of dialysis was associated with higher AAC scores. Loss of RRF was associated with vascular calcification in HD patients.