Concentrations of the enantiomers of unconjugated and of total (unconjugated plus conjugated) mianserin, desmethylmianserin and 8-hydroxymianserin were measured in 12 patients before and after the introduction of carbamazepine. The dose of mianserin was 60 mg/d, carbamazepine was coadministered at 400 mg/d for 4 weeks, and blood samples were taken at weekly intervals after the introduction of carbamazepine. Each week, carbamazepine significantly decreased plasma concentrations of unconjugated and total (S)-mianserin (the more potent enantiomer) and of unconjugated and total (R)-mianserin. On average, plasma concentrations of unconjugated and total (S)-mianserin and of unconjugated and total (R)-mianserin were 55%, 56%, 66%, and 55%, respectively, of the corresponding values before introduction of carbamazepine. These results strongly suggest the involvement of CYP3A4, the major CYP enzyme induced by carbamazepine, in the metabolism of both enantiomers of mianserin. A strong decrease in the concentrations of (S)-8-hydroxymianserin was also measured (on average, the concentrations were 69% of the corresponding values before carbamazepine introduction). Conversely, plasma concentrations of unconjugated and of total (S)-desmethylmianserin, (R)-desmethylmianserin, and (R)-8-hydroxymianserin were only slightly modified by carbamazepine. From a clinical point of view, as a therapeutic window for (S)-mianserin has been recently suggested, the dose of racemic mianserin for a patient whose (S)-mianserin concentrations have been stabilized within this therapeutic window would need to be approximately doubled if carbamazepine, at 400 mg/d, is introduced as a comedication.