Impact of Body Habitus on Phenytoin Levels Following Fosphenytoin Loading Dose in Pediatric Patients

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Abstract

Background:

Obesity has been shown to affect the disposition of water-soluble medications in pediatric patients. There are no published data describing serum phenytoin concentrations in obese pediatric patients.

Methods:

A retrospective descriptive study was designed that included patients from 2011 to 2013 between 2 and 19 years of age who received a dose of fosphenytoin with a subsequent serum phenytoin concentration, drawn 2–4 hours postloading dose. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and patients were categorized by BMI percentiles into underweight (<5th percentile), normal weight (5th–84th percentile), overweight (85th–94th percentile), and obese (≥95th percentile). Descriptive statistical analysis and comparisons between groups occurred to determine differences in serum phenytoin concentrations. Multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to determine the effect of body habitus on serum phenytoin concentrations.

Results:

One hundred ten patients met study criteria (male 51.8%, mean age: 8.3 ± 4.9 years). Patients were normal weight (47.3%), underweight (20.9%), overweight (14.6%), and obese (17.3%). No significant differences were identified between groups in regard to patient demographics, with the exception of weight (P < 0.05). The mean fosphenytoin dose was 23.4 ± 5.7 mg Phenytoin Equivalents (PE)/kg and the serum phenytoin concentration was 22.4 ± 6.8 mg/L measured at 2.9 ± 0.6 hours after dose, and this did not vary significantly across groups (P > 0.05). Multivariable linear regression identified body habitus as a nonsignificant predictor of serum phenytoin concentrations (P > 0.05). Patients of higher BMI did not require further antiepileptic therapy as compared with patients with lower BMI (P > 0.05).

Conclusion:

Contrary to the adult population, loading dose adjustments do not seem to be required in pediatric patients. Obesity does not affect serum phenytoin concentrations in pediatric patients after intravenous bolus fosphenytoin administration.

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