Early Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Posaconazole Oral Suspension in Patients With Hematologic Malignancies

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Background:Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of posaconazole is usually performed 1 week after starting the drug because of its long half-life. However, previous studies showed that measuring the posaconazole plasma concentration (PPC) on day 3 is effective for predicting steady-state levels. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relevance of early TDM (day 3) of posaconazole for achieving an optimal PPC.Methods:This prospective study was conducted from September 2014 to August 2016. A total of 148 patients with acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndromes received a 200 mg posaconazole oral suspension 3 times daily for fungal prophylaxis. During the period from September 2014 to December 2015 (control group), no dose adjustment was performed on day 3. During the period from January 2016 to Aug 2016 (early TDM group), the frequency of posaconazole 200-mg administration was increased to 4 times daily in patients whose PPC on day 3 was <400 ng/mL. The cutoff value for optimal PPC on day 8 was defined as 500 ng/mL.Results:In 21 of 107 patients (20%) in the control group, PPC was <400 ng/mL on day 3. In 15 (71%) of these 21 patients, the PPC was suboptimal on day 8. In the early TDM group, the PPC was <400 ng/mL on day 3 in 4 of 41 patients (10%). After increasing the posaconazole administration frequency in these 4 patients, PPC was suboptimal on day 8 in 1 patient (25%). In both groups, 104 patients had a PPC of ≥500 ng/mL on day 3, but 7% (7/104) of these had a suboptimal level on day 8.Conclusions:Early TDM on day 3 for posaconazole suspension may help more patients achieve optimal drug levels on day 8, although TDM on day 8 is needed even in patients with optimal levels on day 3.

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