Development of an Abbreviated Mycophenolic Acid Area Under the Time–Concentration Curve for Renal Transplant Patients Under Enteric-Coated Mycophenolate Sodium: A Comparison With Critical Analysis of Available Equations

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Abstract

Background:

Enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium is frequently used in renal transplantation. The pharmacokinetic profile of mycophenolic acid (MPA) shows a broad range of time-to-maximum concentration (Tmax) that limits the use of a single MPA concentration to calculate the area under the time–concentration curve (AUC). For both research and clinical MPA monitoring, measuring a complete AUC is troublesome to the center and patients.

Methods:

We obtained 171 complete MPA-AUC12h (0, 20, 40, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 360, 480, 600, and 720 minutes) from 59 adult (54 ± 16 years) patients (29 men and 43 whites) who have been receiving stable doses of tacrolimus/enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium and steroids. We used the 59 curves drawn at 31 ± 4 days after transplantation to develop the abbreviated equations, and the remaining 112 curves drawn at 109 ± 59 days were used to validate them. We used 5 other proposed equations to estimate MPA-AUC (eAUC) (4 with enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique assay and one with high-performance liquid chromatography [HPLC]) and then used these results to compare with our measured AUC, the bias, and the 10% and 30% accuracy. MPA was measured by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometry, and AUC was calculated by the trapezoidal rule.

Results:

For both MPA-measuring methods, enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique and ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometry, the Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (HCFMUSP) equations, and others that measure MPA up to 6 hours after the dose had an acceptable low bias with more results in the 10%–30% range than those using data collected until 4 hours. A highly adequate eAUC is obtained using blood collected at 8 hours.

Conclusions:

This analysis offers blood-sampling alternatives for MPA monitoring depending on the precision needed.

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