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Variable airflow obstruction is a pathophysiological hallmark of asthma; however, the interactions between acute bronchoconstriction and the cough reflex are poorly understood. We performed a randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study to investigate the interaction between bronchoconstriction and cough in asthma. Capsaicin was administered to evoke coughs and methacholine to induce bronchoconstriction. We demonstrated that acute bronchoconstriction increased capsaicin-evoked coughs, which improved as airway calibre spontaneously resolved. However, capsaicin-evoked coughing had no impact on methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. This study provides evidence that bronchoconstriction increases the activation of capsaicin-responsive airway nerves, but the precise mechanisms and mediators involved require further evaluation.ISRCTN14900082.