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This study explored oxidative stress, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-2 (Nox2) activity and endothelial function in children exposed or not to passive smoking. Compared with controls (n=57), Nox2 activity and isoprostanes were higher in children exposed to passive smoking (n=57); conversely, nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and flow-mediated dilation were lower in children exposed to passive smoking. A bivariate analysis showed that Nox2 activity correlated with flow-mediated dilation, NO bioavailability and isoprostanes. A multivariate analysis showed that Nox2 activity was significantly associated with serum isoprostanes and cotinine levels; flow-mediated dilation was associated with isoprostanes and carotid intima-media thickness.In children exposed to passive smoking, Nox2-derived oxidative stress is upregulated and inversely associated with impaired artery dilation.