Restrictive lung defects: parenchymal, chest wall and neuromuscular

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Abstract

Sarcoidosis is a multisystem condition which may affect a number of organs and, within the cardiopulmonary system, most commonly manifests as parenchymal, airway-centred, nodal, vascular or cardiac disease. Pleural involvement is rare, but well described, and often presents as pleural effusions or pleural thickening. Here, we present the first case of active sarcoidosis manifesting as bilateral pleural calcification. We highlight the importance of a nuanced understanding of pulmonary physiology when dissecting coexistent extrathoracic and intrathoracic pulmonary restriction. We demonstrate the value of positron emission tomography scanning for identification of sites of sarcoid activity, in this case the pleura, to ensure tissue confirmation of this rare but functionally important manifestation of disease. Sarcoidosis should be considered within the differential diagnosis for patients with pleural calcification, not explained by more common causes.

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