Predictive factors for endoleaks after thoracic aortic aneurysm endograft repair

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Abstract

Background:

Our prospective investigation aimed to determine and analyze the incidence and the determinants of endoleaks after thoracic stent graft.

Methods:

Sixty-one patients affected by thoracic aortic aneurysms were treated between January 2000 and March 2008. The study cohort contained 54 men, with a mean age of 63.6 ± 17.9 years. The follow-up imaging protocol included chest radiographs and triple-phase computed tomographic angiography performed at 1, 4, and 12 postoperative months and annually thereafter.

Results:

Median follow-up was 32.4 months (range: 1-96 months). Endoleaks were detected in 9 (14.7%) patients, of which 7 were type 1. Five endoleaks were detected at 30 postoperative days, and the other 4 developed with a mean delay of 12 months. Endovascular or hybrid interventions were used to treat the endoleaks. Secondary technical success rate was 100%. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the diameter of the aneurysmal aorta (odds ratio 1.75, 95% confidence interval 1.07-2.86) and the coverage of the left subclavian artery (odds ratio 12.05, 95% confidence interval 1.28-113.30) were independently associated with endoleak development. The percentages of patients in whom reinterventions were unnecessary were 94.6% ± 3.0%, 88.3% ± 4.5%, and 85.4% ± 5.2%, at 1, 2, and 5 years, respectively. The actuarial survival estimates at 1, 2, and 5 years were 85.2% ± 4.6%, 78.1% ± 5.4%, and 70.6% ± 6.4%, respectively.

Conclusions:

The diameter of the aneurysmal aorta and the position of the landing zone are independent predictors of endoleak occurrence after thoracic stent-graft procedures. A careful follow-up program should be considered in patients in whom these indices are unfavorable, because most of the endoleaks may be successfully and promptly treated by additional endovascular procedures.

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