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The authors describe a case of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in a 38-year-old Japanese male patient who had undergone bilateral lung transplantation. Chest CT performed on day 109 revealed multiple lung nodules measuring approximately 1cm in the left lower lobe. Despite administration of anti-fungal agents, follow-up CT performed on day 138 showed bilateral lung nodules increased in size and number. Transcutaneous lung biopsy was performed, yielding a diagnosis of polymorphic PTLD positive for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNA (EBER) and CD20. Treatment with rituximab was successful, resulting in decreased size and number of lung nodules. FDG-PET showed no increased metabolic activity in the residual nodules. In this case, CT and FDG-PET were useful for initial diagnosis and evaluation of treatment response. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of PTLD in a lung transplant recipient in Japan documented in the English literature.