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Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomographic scanning, using 18F-2-deoxy-D-glucose, complements conventional imaging evaluation of patients with lung cancer. The strength of PET scanning lies in the detection of nodal and extrathoracic metastases. PET scanning is also currently being studied in the assessment of prognosis and therapeutic response and has the potential to alter management of oncologic patients. This review will discuss the role of PET/computed tomographic scanning in the diagnosis, staging, and evaluation of prognosis and treatment response in patients with lung cancer.