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A 29-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of progressive dyspnea on exertion, and her 36-year-old sister was also referred for the evaluation of an abnormal chest radiograph. Radiologic and pathologic findings of the 2 sisters resembled each other closely. In both cases, computed tomography revealed diffuse reticulation, micronodules, diffusely distributed interlobular septal thickening, and an ill-defined nodule in the left lower lobe. Radiologic-pathologic correlation revealed that the reticulation and micronodules corresponded to centrilobular and perilobular fibrosis without architectural lung distortion and that the nodules represented pulmonary adenocarcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first report of familial interstitial pneumonia complicated by lung cancer in 2 family members, suggesting a possible etiologic association between familial interstitial pneumonia and lung cancer.