The absolute rate of recurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is approximately 5% per year. There is a lower rate of recurrence in provoked VTE, and higher in idiopathic one. So far, there is no consensus whether hereditary thrombophilia should be considered as a persistent risk factor, and whether it requires long-term anticoagulant therapy. The aim of our study was to estimate the risk of recurrent VTE in patients carrying FV Leiden mutation in Serbian population.
In retrospective study (1994–2006), we have evaluated the risk of recurrent VTE in 56 patients who are carriers of FV Leiden mutation, in comparison to group consisting of 56 patients non-carriers of FV Leiden mutation. Patients with FII G20210A and MTHFR C677T mutations, antiphospholipid antibodies, antithrombin III, protein C or protein S deficiency, malignancies and diabetes were excluded from the study.
Recurrent VTE occurred in 44.6% of the patients, carriers of the FV Leiden mutations, vs. 26.7% in non-carriers group (P < 0.05). The incidence rate was 3.7 and 2.2% per year, respectively. The estimated relative risk of recurrence for FV Leiden carriers was 1.67 (95% CI 0.99–2.81, P = 0.049). The 60% of patients with mutation and only 13% without mutation develop rethrombosis during first year after discontinuance of therapy (P < 0.01).
In our study patients with symptomatic VTE who are carriers of the FV Leiden gene mutations have a higher risk of recurrent VTE than non-carriers. Our data suggest the importance of the FV Leiden mutation detection and the estimation of the clinical condition for successful secondary prophylaxis of VTE.