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This study aimed to evaluate prevalence and risk factors of metabolic syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus–infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 18.5%. The patients with metabolic syndrome had significantly higher fasting blood sugar level, triglyceride level, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and body mass index but lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than those without metabolic syndrome. A significant difference of carbohydrate intake between groups was observed. These findings indicated that metabolic syndrome could be found in human immunodeficiency virus–infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy, and the management of this problem should be taken into consideration.