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In a retrospective review of treatment records from head and neck radiation oncology patients (N = 145), χ2 and logistic regression analyses (P ≤ .05) were used to determine differences in short-term outcomes based on weight status and clinical factors. Significant weight loss was higher among obese patients and those patients with tumor stage 2 or greater. Significant weight loss, dehydration, and hospitalizations were higher among patients receiving chemotherapy. Hospitalizations were higher also among patients with multiple comorbidities. The characteristics were associated with short-term outcomes and should be examined when setting priorities for nutrition care of head and neck cancer patients.