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To identify conjugated bile acids in gallbladder bile and serum as possible biomarkers for cholesterol polyps (CPs) and adenomatous polyps (APs).Gallbladder bile samples and serum samples were collected from 18 patients with CPs (CP group), 9 patients with APs (AP group), and 20 patients with gallstones (control group) from March to November, 2013. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay with ultraviolent detection was used to detect the concentration of 8 conjugated bile acids (glycocholic acid, GCA; taurocholic acid, TCA; glycochenodeoxycholic acid, GCDCA; taurochenodeoxycholic acid, TCDCA; glycodeoxycholic acid, GDCA; taurodeoxycholic acid, TDCA; taurolithocholic acid, TLCA; tauroursodeoxycholic acid, TUDCA) in bile samples and serum samples. The diagnostic efficacy of serum GCA, GCDCA and TCDCA was evaluated.These 8 conjugated bile acids in gallbladder bile and serum were completely identified within 10 minutes with good linearity (correlation coefficient: R>0.9900; linearity range: 3.91-500 μg/mL). Among these conjugated bile acids, the levels of gallbladder bile GCDCA and TCDCA in the CP group were significantly higher than those in the AP group (p<0.05). Furthermore, serum GCDCA and TCDCA as well as GCA were significantly higher in the AP group than the CP group (p<0.05). Serum GCDCA alone (≤12 μg/mL) had relatively better diagnostic efficacy than the other conjugated bile acids.The levels of serum GCA, GCDCA and TCDCA may be valuable for differentiation of APs and CPs.