Gene expression profiling of prostate cancer-associated genes identifies fibromodulin as potential novel biomarker for prostate cancer

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Abstract

Background:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the gene expression profiles of a set of prostate cancer-associated genes in prostate cancer cell lines, to determine their association with different cancer phenotypes and identify potential novel biomarkers for this disease.

Methods:

Quantitative real-time PCR was used to determine the expression profiles of 21 prostate cancer-associated genes in the human prostate cancer cell lines PC-3 and LNCaP, using the nontumorigenic cell line PWR-1E as control cell line. Genes evaluated were ESM-1, SERPINE2, CLU, BGN, A2M, PENK, FMOD, CD81, DCN, TSPAN8, KBTBD10, F2RL1, TMSB4X, SNCG, CXXC5, FOXQ1, PDPN, SPN, CAV1, CD24 and KLK3. A potential biomarker from this set of genes, the FMOD gene, encoding the small leucine-rich proteoglycan fibromodulin, was selected for further evaluation in clinical samples from patients diagnosed with benign or malignant prostatic disease.

Results:

Several of the evaluated genes showed significantly altered expression in the prostate cancer cell lines, compared with nontumorigenic PWR-1E cells. Further evaluation of FMOD transcript in prostate clinical samples from patients diagnosed with benign or malignant prostatic disease identified a significant difference in the expression levels of this proteoglycan between benign and malignant tissue (p<0.05).

Conclusions:

A number of gene transcripts were differentially expressed by the cell lines assayed. Among them, FMOD was further evaluated in clinical samples and was found to be differentially expressed between benign and prostate cancer tissue. Further validation of FMOD transcript in a larger population is required to ascertain its usefulness as biomarker for prostate cancer.

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