Allele and haplotype frequencies of the human leukocyte antigens (HLA) were studied in the Kinh Vietnamese population. We analyzed 170 unrelated healthy individuals. DNA-based HLA typing was performed using a microsphere-based array genotyping platform with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes to distinguish HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 and -DQB1 alleles. A total of 21 HLA-A, 37 HLA-B, 18 HLA-C, 25 HLA-DRB1, and 14 HLA-DQB1 alleles were identified. HLA-A*1101, A*2402, A*3303, B*1502, B*4601, Cw*0102, Cw*0702, Cw*0801, DRB1*1202, DQB1*0301, DQB1*0303, and DQB1*0501 were found with frequencies higher than 10%. Two representative haplotypes bearing two to five HLA loci were A*1101-B*1502 and A*3303-B*5801 for HLA-A-B; Cw*0801-B*1502 and Cw*0102-B*4601 for HLA-C-B; B*1502-DRB1*1202 and B*4601-DRB1*0901 for HLA-B-DRB1; DRB1*1202-DQB1*0301 and DRB1*0901-DQB1*0303 for HLA-DRB1-DQB1; A*1101-Cw*0801-B*1502 and A*3303-Cw*0302-B*5801 for HLA-A-C-B; A*1101-B*1502-DRB1*1202 and A*2901-B*0705-DRB1*1001 for HLA-A-B-DRB1, A*1101-Cw*0801-B*1502-DRB1*1202-DQB1*0301 and A*2901-Cw*1505-B*0705-DRB1*1001-DQB1*0501 for HLA-A-C-B-DRB1-DQB1. Allele distribution and haplotype analysis demonstrated that the Vietnamese population shares HLA patterns with southern Chinese, Thai, Javanese and Micronesians, while it also retains unique characteristics.