Mesenchymal stem cell therapy: A promising cell-based therapy for treatment of myocardial infarction

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For decades, mesenchymal stem (MSCs) cells have been used for cardiovascular diseases as regenerative therapy. This review is an attempt to summarize the types of MSCs involved in myocardial infarction (MI) therapy, as well as its possible mechanisms effects, especially the paracrine one in MI focusing on the studies (human and animal) conducted within the last 10 years. Recently, reports showed that MSC therapy could have infarct-limiting effects after MI in both experimental and clinical trials. In this context, various types of MSCs can help cardiac regeneration by either revitalizing the cardiac stem cells or revascularizing the arteries and veins of the heart. Furthermore, MSCs could produce paracrine growth factors that increase the survival of nearby cardiomyocytes, as well as increase angiogenesis through recruitment of stem cell from bone marrow or inducing vessel growth from existing capillaries. Recent research suggests that the paracrine effects of MSCs could be mediated by extracellular vesicles including exosomes. Exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) released by MSCs are promising therapeutic hotspot target for MI. This could be attributed to the role of miRNA in cardiac biology, including cardiac regeneration, stem cell differentiation, apoptosis, neovascularization, cardiac contractility and cardiac remodeling. Furthermore, gene-modified MSCs could be a recent promising therapy for MI to enhance the paracrine effects of MSCs, including better homing and effective cell targeted tissue regeneration. Although MSC therapy has achieved considerable attention and progress, there are critical challenges that remains to be overcome to achieve the most effective successful cell-based therapy in MI.

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