From implant planning to surgical execution: an integrated approach for surgery in oral implantology

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Using oral implantology software and transferring the preoperative planning into a stereolithographic model, prosthodontists can produce the related surgical guide. This procedure has some disadvantages: bone-supported stent invasiveness, lack of references due to scattering and non-negligible stereolithography cost. An alternative solution is presented that provides an ideal surgical stent (not invasive, precise, and cheap) as a result. This work focuses on the third phase of a fully 3D approach to oral implant planning, that starts by CT scanning a patient who wears a markers-equipped radiological stent, continues exploiting built-on-purpose preoperative planning software, and finishes producing the ideal surgical template.


A 5-axes bur-equipped robot has been designed able to reproduce the milling vectors planned by the software. Software–robot interfacing has been achieved properly matching the stent reference frame and the software and robot coordinate systems. Invasiveness has been avoided achieving the surgical stent from the mucosa-supported radiological mask wax-up. Scattering is ignored because of the surgical stent independency from the bone structure radiography. Production cost has been strongly reduced by avoiding the stereolithographic model. Finally, software–robot interfacing precision has been validated comparing digitally a multi-marker base and its planning transfer.


Average position and orientation errors (respectively 0.283 mm ± 0.073 mm and 1.798° ± 0.496°) were significantly better than those achieved using methods based on stereolithography (respectively, 1.45 mm ± 1.42 mm and 7.25° ± 2.67°, with a general best maximum translation discrepancy of about 1.1 mm).


This paper describes the last step of a fully 3D approach in which implant planning can be done in a 3D environment, and the correct position, orientation and depth of the planned implants are easily computed and transferred to the surgical phase. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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