Canola oil (Can), as well as some other oils, shortens the survival of SHRSP rats compared with soybean oil (Soy). Although detrimental factors other than phytosterols have not been identified, they are likely to be hydrophobic and transmittable to pups. To test this possibility, female SHRSP rats (F0) were fed a diet supplemented with Can or Soy and mated at 11 wk of age. The growth of suckling pups (F1) from the Can-fed dams was significantly retarded compared with that of pups from the Soy-fed dams. Half of the male pups (F1) were weaned to the same diet as their dams (Can→Can and Soy→Soy groups) and the rest were weaned to the other diet (Can→Soy and Soy→Can groups). The survival rate of the male pups (F1) was significantly lower in the Can→Can group than in the Soy→Can group, and in the Can→Soy group than in the Soy→Soy group, indicating that the oils fed to dams differently affected the growth and survival of pups. There were fewer pups per dam in the Can-fed dams (F0) than in the Soy-fed dams, and in the dams (F1) of the Can→Can and Soy→Can groups than in those of the Can→Soy and Soy→Soy groups. Although Can is nutritionally detrimental to SHRSP rats compared with Soy, no direct evidence has been obtained thus far relating these observations to human nutrition. J. Nutr. 134: 1347-1352, 2004.