Diets enriched in the (n-3) PUFAs, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and their precursor α-linolenic acid (ALA), were evaluated for efficacy in ameliorating the development of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) induced in mice by the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). The effects of DON were compared in mice that were fed for 18 wk with AIN-93G diets containing 1) 10 g/kg corn oil plus 60 g/kg oleic acid (control); 2) 10 g/kg corn oil plus 35 g/kg oleic acid and 25 g/kg DHA-enriched fish oil (DHA); 3) 10 g/kg corn oil plus 33 g/kg oleic acid and 27 g/kg EPA-enriched fish oil (EPA); and 4) 10 g/kg corn oil plus 37 g/kg oleic acid and 23 g/kg DHA + EPA (1:1) enriched fish oil (DHA + EPA). The DHA, EPA and DHA + EPA diets attenuated induction by dietary DON (10 mg/kg) of serum IgA and IgA immune complexes, kidney mesangial IgA deposition, and ex vivo IgA secretion by spleen cells. Consumption of the DHA + EPA diet for 8 wk significantly abrogated the DON-induced gene expression of interleukin (IL)-6, a requisite cytokine for DON-induced IgA nephropathy, in spleen and Peyer's patches. Finally, incorporation of ALA-containing flaxseed oil up to 60 g/kg in the AIN-93G diet did not affect DON-induced IgA dysregulation in mice. Taken together, both DHA and EPA, but not ALA, ameliorated the early stages of IgAN, and these effects might be related to a reduced capacity for IL-6 production. J. Nutr. 134: 1353-1361, 2004.