This study was designed to assess the effects of transition and adaptation to a very high protein diet on behavioral food responses, energy intake, body weight gain, and body composition in rats. For this purpose, adult male Wistar rats were fed either a diet with 70% of energy as protein (P70 group) or a diet with 14% of energy as protein (P14 group) for 16 d. These two groups were compared with a P14 pair-fed (P14-pf) group. A behavioral satiety sequence was also examined. The P70 group ate 21% less than the P14 rats (P< 0.001) and gained less body weight (P< 0.01). The P70 group gained more carcass weight than either P14 or P14-pf rats (P< 0.05). Behavior and food intake data were affected in P70 rats on d 1 of eating the very high protein diet and then returned to baseline values as early as d 2 of consuming the P70 diet. Rats that adapted to the very high protein diet did not acquire a conditioned taste aversion but rather exhibited satiety and a normal behavioral satiety sequence. J. Nutr. 134: 1512-1515, 2004.