Whole Soy Flour Incorporated into a Muffin and Consumed at 2 Doses of Soy Protein Does Not Lower LDL Cholesterol in a Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Trial of Hypercholesterolemic Adults1,2

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid



Soy protein may reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) risk by lowering LDL cholesterol, but few studies have assessed whether whole soy flour displays a similar effect.


The aim of this study was to assess the dose effect of whole soy flour incorporated into muffins on plasma LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic adults.


Adults aged 30–70 y (n = 243) with elevated LDL cholesterol (≥3.0 and ≤5.0 mmol/L) were stratified by LDL cholesterol and randomly assigned to consume 2 soy muffins containing 25 g soy protein [high-dose soy (HDS)], 1 soy and 1 wheat muffin containing 12.5 g soy protein and 12.5 g whey protein [low-dose soy (LDS)], or 2 wheat muffins containing 25 g whey protein (control) daily for 6 wk while consuming a self-selected diet. Fasting blood samples were collected at weeks 0, 3, and 6 for analysis of plasma lipids [total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol and triglycerides (TGs)], glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and isoflavones. Blood pressures also were measured. Dietary intake was assessed at weeks 0 and 4 with the use of 3 d food records. Treatment effects were assessed with the use of intention-to-treat analysis with multiple imputation and LDL cholesterol as the primary outcome.


In total, 213 (87.6%) participants completed the trial. Participants were primarily Caucasian (83%) and mostly female (63%), with a mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m2) of 28.0± 4.6 and systolic and diastolic blood pressures of 122 ± 16 and 77± 11 mm Hg, respectively. Despite a dose-dependent increase in plasma isoflavones (P < 0.001), neither HDS nor LDS had a significant effect on LDL cholesterol compared with control (mean ± SEM changes: control, -0.04 ± 0.05 mmol/L; HDS, 0.01± 0.05 mmol/L; and LDS, -0.04± 0.06 mmol/L). There were no significant treatment effects on total or HDL cholesterol, TGs, CRP, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, blood pressure, or the Framingham 10-y CHD risk score.


Consuming 12.5 or 25 g protein from defatted soy flour incorporated into muffins does not reduce LDL cholesterol or other CHD risk factors in hypercholesterolemic adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01547585. J Nutr 2015;145:2665–74.

Related Topics

    loading  Loading Related Articles