Dietary Milk-Fat-Globule Membrane Affects Resistance to DiarrheagenicEscherichia coliin Healthy Adults in a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Study1,2

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Background:The milk-fat-globule membrane (MFGM) contains phospholipids and membrane glycoproteins that have been shown to affect pathogen colonization and gut barrier integrity.Objective:In the present study, we determined whether commercial heat-treated MFGM can increase resistance to diarrheagenic Escherichia coli.Methods:A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 4-wk parallel-intervention study was conducted in healthy adults. Participants were randomly assigned to a milk protein concentrate rich in MFGM [10 g Lacprodan PL-20 (Arla Foods Ingredients Group P/S), twice daily; n = 30; MFGM group) or a control [10 g Miprodan 30 (sodium caseinate), twice daily; n = 28]. After 2 wk, participants were orally challenged with live, attenuated diarrheagenic E. coli (1010 colonyforming units). Primary outcomes were infection-induced diarrhea and fecal diarrheagenic E. coli excretion. Secondary outcomes were gastrointestinal symptoms [Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS)], stool frequency, and stool consistency (Bristol Stool Scale).Results:Diarrheagenic E. coli resulted in increased fecal output, lower relative fecal dry weight, increased fecal E. coli numbers, and an increase in stool frequency and gastrointestinal complaints at day 1 after challenge. MFGM significantly decreased the E. coli-induced changes in reported stool frequency (1.1 ± 0.1 stools/d in the MFGM group; 1.6 ± 0.2 stools/d in the control group; P = 0.04) and gastrointestinal complaints at day 2 (1.1 ± 0.5 and 2.5 ± 0.6 GSRS scores in the MFGM and control groups, respectively; P = 0.05). MFGM did not affect fecal wet weight and E. coli excretion at day 2 after challenge.Conclusions:The attenuated diarrheagenic E. coli strain transiently induced mild symptoms of a food-borne infection, with complete recovery of reported clinical symptoms within 2 d. The present diarrheagenic E. coli challenge trial conducted in healthy adults indicates that a milk concentrate rich in natural, bioactive phospho- and sphingolipids from the MFGM may improve in vivo resistance to diarrheagenic E. coli. This trial was registered at as NCT01800396. J Nutr 2016;146:249-55.

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