Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Abdominal Visceral Adipose Tissue Volume and Serum Adipokine Concentrations but Not with Body Mass Index or Waist Circumference in African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study1–3

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Abstract

Background:

The biological actions of vitamin D are mediated through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the VDR gene have been previously associated with adiposity traits. However, to our knowledge, few studies have included direct measures of adiposity and adipokine concentrations.

Objective:

We examined the association of tagging SNPs in the VDR gene with multiple adiposity measures, including waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume, and serum adipokine (adiponectin and leptin) concentrations in adult African Americans (AAs).

Methods:

Data from 3020 participants (61.9% women; mean age, 54.6 y) from the Jackson Heart Study were used for this analysis. Forty-five tag SNPs were chosen with the use of genotype data from the International HapMap project. We used linear regression to test the associations of imputed VDR SNPs with each of the traits, adjusted for age, sex, educational status, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, serum vitamin D concentration, European ancestry, and multiple testing.

Results:

The G allele of the SNP rs4328262 remained associated with increased VAT volume after multiple testing correction (β = 45.7; P < 0.001). The A allele of another SNP (rs11574070) was nominally associated with body fat percentage (β = 0.96; P = 0.002). None of the VDR SNPs analyzed showed any link with WC or BMI. The A allele of rs2228570 (β = 0.08; P = 0.001) for men and the T allele of rs2853563 (β = 0.04; P < 0.001) for women remained positively associated with serum adiponectin concentrations after multiple testing correction.

Conclusion:

Although we did not find any association for anthropometric measures, we did observe associations of VDR variants with serum adipokines and with the more metabolically active fat, VAT. Therefore, our findings demonstrate a possible role of VDR variants in regulating adipose tissue activity and adiposity among AAs.

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