Prolonged high intakes of dietary selenium have been shown to induce gestational diabetes in rats and hyperinsulinemia in pigs.Objective:
Two experiments were conducted to explore metabolic and molecular mechanisms for the diabetogenic potential of high dietary selenium intakes in pigs.Methods:
In Expt. 1, 16 Yorkshire-Landrace-Hampshire crossbred pigs (3 wk old, body weight = 7.5 ± 0.81 kg, 50% males and 50% females) were fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet supplemented with 0.3 or 1.0 mg Se/kg (as selenium-enriched yeast for 6 wk). In Expt. 2, 12 pigs of the same crossbreed (6 wk old, body weight = 16.0 ± 1.8 kg) were fed a similar basal diet supplemented with 0.3 or 3.0 mg Se/kg for 11 wk. Biochemical and gene and protein expression profiles of lipid and protein metabolism and selenoproteins in plasma, liver, muscle, and adipose tissues were analyzed.Results:
In Expt. 1, the 1-mg-Se/kg diet did not affect body weight or plasma concentrations of glucose and nonesterified fatty acids. In Expt. 2, the 3-mg-Se/kg diet, compared with the 0.3-mg-Se/kg diet, increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of plasma insulin (0.2 compared with 0.4 ng/mL), liver and adipose lipids (41% to 2.4-fold), and liver and muscle protein (10–14%). In liver, the 3-mg-Se/kg diet upregulated (P < 0.05) the expression, activity, or both of key factors related to gluconeogenesis [phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK); 13%], lipogenesis [sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1), acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC), and fatty acid synthase (FASN); 46–90%], protein synthesis [insulin receptor (INSR), P70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (P70), and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P-S6); 88–105%], energy metabolism [AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK); up to 2.8-fold], and selenoprotein glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3; 1.4-fold) and suppressed (P < 0.05) mRNA levels of lipolysis gene cytochrome P450, family 7, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP7A1; 88%) and selenoprotein gene selenoprotein W1 (SEPW1; 46%). In muscle, the 3-mg-Se/kg diet exerted no effect on the lipid profiles but enhanced (P < 0.05) expression of P-S6 and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR; 42–176%; protein synthesis); selenoprotein P (SELP; 40-fold); and tumor suppressor protein 53 (P53) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG; 52–58%; lipogenesis) and suppressed (P < 0.05) expression of INSR (59%; insulin signaling); selenoprotein S (SELS); deiodinases, iodothyronine, type I (DIO1); and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TXNRD1; 50%; selenoproteins); and ACC1 and FASN (35–51%; lipogenesis).Conclusion:
Our research showed novel roles, to our best knowledge, and mechanisms of high selenium intakes in regulating the metabolism of protein, along with that of lipid, in a tissue-specific fashion in pigs.