Jejunal Infusion of Glucose Decreases Energy Intake to a Greater Extent than Fructose in Adult Male Rats1,2

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Abstract

Background:

Intestinal nutrient infusions result in variable decreases in energy intake and body weight based on nutrient type and specific intestinal infusion site.

Objective:

The objective was to test whether an intrajejunal fructose infusion (FRU) would lower energy intake and body weight and induce similar increases in gut hormones as those found after intrajejunal glucose infusions (GLU).

Methods:

Male Sprague-Dawley rats received an intrajejunal infusion of either an equal kilocalorie load of glucose or fructose (11.4 kcal) or saline (SAL) for 5 d while intake of a standard rodent diet was continuously recorded; body weight was measured daily. Immediately after the infusion on the final day, rats were killed and plasma was collected to measure hormones.

Results:

Daily energy intake was significantly lower in the GLU group than in the SAL group, but the FRU group did not differ from the GLU or SAL groups when the 11.4 kcal of the infusate was included as energy intake. Lower energy intake was due to smaller meal sizes during the infusion period in the GLU group than in the FRU and SAL groups; the FRU and SAL groups did not differ. The percentage of change in body weight was lower in the GLU group than in the FRU and SAL groups. Plasma glucagon-like-peptide 1 (GLP-1) concentrations were greater in the GLU group than in the SAL group; the FRU group did not differ from the GLU or SAL groups. The plasma insulin concentration was greater in the FRU group than in both the GLU and SAL groups.

Conclusion:

These results demonstrate that glucose induces a greater decrease in energy intake and increase in GLP-1 at distal intestinal sites than fructose in rats, which may explain differential effects of these monosaccharides between studies when delivered orally or along the proximal to distal axis of the intestine.

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