Chromosome 11q13.5 containingRSF1(HBXAP), a gene involved in chromatin remodelling, is amplified in several human cancers including ovarian carcinoma. Our previous studies demonstrated requirement of Rsf-1 for cell survival in cancer cells, which contributed to tumour progression; however, its role in tumourigenesis has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we co-immunoprecipitated proteins with Rsf-1 followed by nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry and identified cyclin E1, besides SNF2H, as one of the major Rsf-1 interacting proteins. LikeRSF1,CCNE1is frequently amplified in ovarian cancer, and both Rsf-1 and cyclin E1 were found co-up-regulated in ovarian cancer tissues. Ectopic expression of Rsf-1 and cyclin E1 in non-tumourigenicTP53mutRK3E cells led to an increase in cellular proliferation and tumour formation by activating cyclin E1-associated kinase (CDK2). Tumourigenesis was not detected if either cyclin E1 or Rsf-1 was expressed, or they were expressed in aTP53wtbackground. Domain mapping showed that cyclin E1 interacted with the first 441 amino acids of Rsf-1. Ectopic expression of this truncated domain significantly suppressed G1/S-phase transition, cellular proliferation, and tumour formation of RK3E-p53R175H/Rsf-1/cyclin E1 cells. The above findings suggest that Rsf-1 interacts and collaborates with cyclin E1 in neoplastic transformation andTP53mutations are a prerequisite for tumour-promoting functions of the RSF/cyclin E1 complex.