Ovarian carcinoma is the most lethal gynaecological malignancy. Better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of this disease and effective targeted therapies are needed to improve patient outcomes. MicroRNAs play important roles in cancer progression and have the potential for use as either therapeutic agents or targets. Studies in other cancers have suggested that miR-506 has anti-tumour activity, but its function has yet to be elucidated. We found that deregulation of miR-506 in ovarian carcinoma promotes an aggressive phenotype. Ectopic over-expression of miR-506 in ovarian cancer cells was sufficient to inhibit proliferation and to promote senescence. We also demonstrated thatCDK4andCDK6are direct targets of miR-506, and that miR-506 can inhibit CDK4/6–FOXM1 signalling, which is activated in the majority of serous ovarian carcinomas. This newly recognized miR-506–CDK4/6–FOXM1 axis provides further insight into the pathogenesis of ovarian carcinoma and identifies a potential novel therapeutic agent.