Uncontrolled hemorrhage from vessel injuries within the torso remains a significant source of prehospital trauma mortality. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta can effectively control noncompressible hemorrhage, but this minimally invasive technique relies heavily on imaging not available in the field. Our goal was to develop morphometric roadmaps to enhance the safety and accuracy of fluoroscopy-free endovascular navigation of hemorrhage control devices.METHODS
Three-dimensional reconstructions of computed tomographic angiography scans from 122 trauma patients (mean [SD] age, 47  years; range 5–93 years; 64 males; 58 females) were used to measure centerline distances from femoral artery access sites to the major aortic branch artery origins. Morphometric roadmap equations were created using multiple linear regression analysis to predict distances to the origins of the major arteries in the chest, abdomen, and pelvis using torso length, demographics, and risk factors as independent variables. A 40-mm-long occlusion balloon was then virtually deployed targeting Zones 1 and 3 of the aorta using these equations. Balloon placement accuracy was determined by comparing predicted versus actual measured distances to the target zone locations within the aortas from the database.RESULTS
Torso length and age were the strongest predictors of centerline distances from femoral artery access sites to the major artery origins. Male sex contributed to longer distances, while diabetes and smoking were associated with shorter distances. Hypertension, dyslipidemia, and coronary artery disease had no effect. With the use of morphometric roadmaps, virtual occlusion balloon placement accuracy was 100% for Zone 3 of the aorta, compared with 87% accuracy when using torso length alone.CONCLUSION
Morphometric roadmaps demonstrate a potential for improving the safety and accuracy of fluoroscopy-free aortic occlusion balloon delivery. Continued development of minimally invasive hemorrhage control techniques holds promise to improve prehospital mortality for patients with noncompressible exsanguinating torso injuries.LEVEL OF EVIDENCE
Therapeutic study, level IV; diagnostic study, level III.